Answered By: Referencing Enquiries Team
Last Updated: Aug 29, 2017     Views: 5

These are Latin phrases used in some referencing systems.  Ibid is an abbreviation of ibidem, meaning ‘in the same place’ and op. cit is an abbreviation of opere citato, meaning ‘in the work cited’. 

If you are using MMU Harvard referencing then you are not required to use these terms in your work.  Instead, each time you cite a source you enter the a citation in the format required for the specific source you are using. 

Instruction on the format of citations can be found in the citations section of the MMU Harvard online guide and examples for specific sources can be found in the MMU Harvard reference types A-Z list