Answered By: Referencing Enquiries Team Last Updated: Apr 13, 2018 Views: 1437
Examples of citing someone who is not the author of the source are:
- A person the author has interviewed and/or quoted
- A source of information that includes a written speech or statement
- A person speaking in a video, film, broadcast or audio recording
(This should not be confused with citing a source that an author has cited in their work. This is known as secondary referencing. Please see the section on 'Secondary sources' for instruction on how to cite secondary references.)
When citing someone who is not the author of the source, you should introduce the person in your writing as their name is not included in the bracketed citation.
Below is an example of a summary of a quote by Angela Rayner which appeared in the following Guardian online news article written by Coughlan in 2017.
The bracketed citation for the article would be formatted as (Coughlan, 2017) and the summary could be presented as follows:
When citing a direct quote by someone who is not the author of the source, you should introduce the person in your writing, use double quotation marks for the quote, rather than the usual single quotation marks for direct quotes by the author of the source, and add the page number within the bracketed citation, or, for sources without a page number (ie online sources) use the word online in place of the page number, as shown in the example below.
Direct quote from a video/film/broadcast
When citing a person speaking in a video, film, broadcast or audio recording and they are not the author of the source, you should introduce the person in your writing, use double quotation marks for the quote and also include the start time at which the words were spoken (in minutes and/or seconds) within the bracketed citation.
The example direct quote below is taken from a YouTube video of a recording of a presentation:
The reference for which would be as follows: